Organizational structure is the actual arrangement of domains and their connections. It reflects where power to influence is located, and the channels through which information and influence flow.
An effective organizational structure:
- supports flow of value
- enables collaboration
- ensures information is available to those who need it
- distributes power to influence as required
- evolves continuously to adapt to changing context
The basic building blocks for organizational structure are interdependent, connected domains.
Domains can be linked in a hierarchy or a heterarchy (a.k.a. complex adaptive system, or network), where different functional structures co-exist.
Sociocracy 3.0 describes a variety of patterns to grow organizational structure.
- patterns apply to different layers of abstraction
- different structural patterns serve different drivers
- structural patterns can be adapted and combined as needed
- more patterns are out there and will be discovered
Pattern 10.1: Helping Team
A group of people with the mandate to execute on requirements defined by a circle in response to a driver.
- a way for a circle to expand its capacity
- may be self-organizing or guided by a coordinator chosen by the parent circle
- is governed by the parent circle
Members of the helping circle:
- can object to decisions made by the parent circle that affect them
- can add items to the governance backlog of the parent circle
- may be invited to select a representative to participate in governance decisions of the parent circle
Pattern 10.2: Service Circle
A pattern for outsourcing services required by two or more domains.
A service circle can be populated by members of the domains it serves, and/or by other people too.
Pattern 10.3: Delegate Circle
A pattern for deciding how to address drivers affecting multiple domains.
Decisions of a delegate circle are acted upon in the various domains it serves.
Each circle selects one or more members as representative(s) to a delegate circle.
Delegate circles provide a way of steering organizations from the ground up, and bring a diversity of perspective to governance decisions.
Pattern 10.4: Peach Organization
A pattern for decentralized organizations to deliver value in complex and competitive environments.
- circles on the periphery deliver value in direct exchange with the outside world (customers, partners, communities, municipalities etc.)
- the center provides internal services to support the organization
- periphery stewards the monetary resources and steers the organization
Pattern 10.5: Double-Linked Hierarchy
Bring equivalence to governance in a typical organizational hierarchy.
- the organization is built from of self-governing circles
- circles select a member to represent their interests in governance decisions of the next higher circle, and vice versa
- functional hierarchy is still possible if valuable
Pattern 10.6: Open Systems
An organization (or it’s various sub-domains) can benefit from intentionally communicating with and learning from others.
An organization is an interdependent system that benefits from consciously inviting information and influence from people who can assist with making decisions and experimenting to learn.
- External experts can offer an outside perspective and bring knowledge, understanding and skills
- Representatives of affected parties can inform and influence decision making in ways that benefit overall objectives (see Those Affected Decide)
Pattern 10.7: Service Organization
A pattern for multi-stakeholder collaboration and alignment towards a shared driver (often referred to as a backbone organization).
- improves potential for equivalence between various entities
- increases cross-departmental/organizational alignment
- supports multi-agency collaboration between departments/organizations with different primary motives, or that are in conflict
- suitable for one-off projects, or ongoing collaboration
Pattern 10.8: Fractal Organization
A pattern for multiple organizations (or domains) with a common driver to share learning and if valuable, coordinate and align action.
- a way to organize, align and steer from the ground up, while preserving autonomy and agency of the various entities involved
- a structure to facilitate innovation and exchange of learning throughout a large community on an ‘as needed’ basis
Pattern 10.9: Open Domain
An open domain is a way to intentionally account for a domain by invitation rather than assignment.
The delegator of the open domain clarifies:
- primary driver, key responsibilities and constraints of the open domain
- who is invited to contribute to the open domain
- constraints relating to the delegator’s participation in the open domain’s governance
The delegator of the open domain is accountable for ensuring regular review of the open domain.
Depending on the constraints set by delegators, contributors may account for work and/or governance of the open domain.
Read next: Changelog
© 2017 by B. Bockelbrink, J. Priest and L. David Licensed under CC BY-SA 4.0